Station 7

Look at the 4 instruments below named (A-D) and answer the following questions.

A

B

C

D

Which tube will allow a patient to phonate? (Marks -1)

B

What structures may be encountered during a surgical tracheostomy before the trachea is entered? (Marks – 5 )
Skin, subcutaneous fat, platysma, investing layer of cervical fascia, straps muscles, pretracheal fascia, isthmus of the thyroid gland. 

    What is C used for? (Marks – 2)

    Used for securing the tracheostomy around the patient’s neck.

    Give 2 advantages and disadvantages when placing tube A (Marks – 4)

    1. Advantages – Can provide a closed circuit, can give positive pressure ventilation, can protect lungs from blood and secretions. 
    2. Disadvantages- trauma to trachea from pressure, impaired speech and swallowing. 

    What are the complications of a tracheostomy?

    Complications of tracheostomy include:

      1. General – bleeding, infection, scar, permanent tube
      2. Early – granulation, tube dislodgement, blockage
      3. Late -tracheal stenosis, webb, tracheocutaneous fistula, trachea-oesophageal fistula, tracheomalacia.
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